Neurofeedback Research

Interested in learning more about neurofeedback research?
Check out the links below to read up-to-date studies:

This study reviews the effectiveness and specificity of Neurofeedback (NF) in treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). While non-randomized trials show positive results with medium-to-large effects, randomized controlled trials provide less robust evidence. Electrophysiological studies confirm NF’s impact on brain activity patterns, and it’s well-tolerated with no safety concerns. Long-term effects are supported by follow-up studies. However, more evidence is needed to guide clinical use and optimize treatment protocols for ADHD.


Evidence-Based Information on the Clinical Use of Neurofeedback for ADHD

The study investigates the use of real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-nf) to enhance dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to anterior cingulate cortex (DLPFC-ACC) connectivity in individuals with high trait anxiety. Participants were divided into an experimental group receiving genuine rt-fMRI-nf and a control group receiving sham feedback. Results showed reduced anxiety levels and increased DLPFC-ACC connectivity in the experimental group, along with heightened resting state functional connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex. The findings suggest rt-fMRI-nf’s potential in modifying brain connectivity and reducing anxiety.


Using connectivity-based real-time fMRI neurofeedback to modulate attentional and resting state networks in people with high trait anxiety

This study investigates the use of neurofeedback (NFB) training to improve self-regulation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Focusing on prefrontal neurofeedback, the study aimed to enhance attention and modify EEG characteristics by upregulating gamma activity and suppressing wide-band EEG amplitude. Over 18 weekly sessions involving 18 high-functioning children with ASD, the researchers observed a linear decrease in theta/beta ratio and an increase in gamma activity. These findings suggest that neurofeedback can effectively alter EEG patterns associated with ASD. The study contributes to developing more effective EEG data analysis methods during neurofeedback training in autism.


Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

This study discusses the use of neurofeedback, a type of biofeedback, in treating symptoms associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neurofeedback, which enables users to see or hear representations of their physiological responses, is explored as a treatment option for both civilian and military populations with TBI. The study emphasizes the need for more rigorous research, including blinded randomized controlled trials, to fully establish the efficacy of neurofeedback for TBI. However, preliminary findings suggest it could be promising for treating symptoms related to attention, mood, and mindfulness in TBI patients. The study also highlights advancements in technology, such as at-home neurofeedback devices, which may offer additional benefits in TBI treatment.


An Overview of the Use of Neurofeedback Biofeedback for the Treatment of Symptoms of Traumatic Brain Injury in Military and Civilian Populations

This systematic review examines Electroencephalogram-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) as a treatment for depression, especially highlighting its increased relevance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twelve studies were analyzed, showing significant cognitive, clinical, and neural improvements in patients with depression following EEG-NF training. Despite some issues in current EEG-NF practices, it emerges as a promising, low-cost, non-invasive treatment option with minimal side effects. The review suggests EEG-NF as a supplementary treatment for depression, particularly for patients who remain symptomatic despite standard medication. The review also calls for improved experimental designs and standards in future EEG-NF research for treating depression.


Review of EEG-based neurofeedback as a therapeutic intervention to treat depression

This review examines the use of neurofeedback (NF) in treating insomnia, analyzing 12 experimental studies. The findings suggest subjective sleep improvements across various NF types, including surface NF and z-score NF. Most studies focus on enhancing sensorimotor rhythm in the sensorimotor cortex, indicating potential in reducing insomnia symptoms. The review highlights the need for more robust, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with larger sample sizes to affirm NF’s efficacy as an insomnia treatment.


Neurofeedback for insomnia: Current state of research

This study evaluates the efficacy of infra-low frequency neurofeedback in treating tension-type headache (TTH). It was a crossover sham-controlled trial involving ten sessions each of neurofeedback and sham-neurofeedback, randomized in order. Additionally, basic psychotherapeutic interventions like a psychoeducational session and emotional support were included. The results demonstrated a significant beneficial effect of neurofeedback on TTH, with no effect from sham sessions. This supports the prophylactic use of infra-low frequency neurofeedback in TTH patients and advocates for including psychotherapeutic components in neurofeedback research protocols.


Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback in Tension-Type Headache: A Cross-Over Sham-Controlled Study

This study explores the effects of neurofeedback (NFB) on cognitive functioning and quality of life in children and adolescents with controlled focal epilepsy. Participants were divided into three groups receiving either sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) NFB, slow cortical potentials (SCP) NFB, or sham NFB. The study found that SMR NFB significantly improved cognitive functioning, as evidenced by reduced reaction times in attention tasks. The study highlights the effectiveness of specific NFB modalities in improving cognitive performance and quality of life in pediatric epilepsy.


Neurofeedback impacts cognition and quality of life in pediatric focal epilepsy: an exploratory randomized double-blinded sham-controlled trial

The study examines the effectiveness of Decoded Neurofeedback (DecNef) in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). DecNef, a novel neurofeedback approach, allows patients to regulate brain activity related to traumatic stimuli unconsciously, using real-time monitoring and feedback of fMRI signals. This method targets multivariate voxel patterns in the brain, unlike conventional neurofeedback which focuses on average neural signals. The study’s results suggest that DecNef could significantly reduce PTSD severity and might be a promising alternative to exposure-based therapies, especially since it bypasses the distress typically associated with conscious exposure to traumatic events.


Current Status of Neurofeedback for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and the Possibility of Decoded Neurofeedback

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